Thermal Management – Heaters



  • Gap Fillers
  • Grease
  • Phase Change
  • Putties
  • Silicone Coated Fabrics
  • Thermally Conductive Tapes


A thermal management system consists of materials (Thermal Interface Materials) designed to remove the heat generated by an electronic devices (such as a power transistor or microprocessor) to the ambient environment in order to ensure the reliable operation of the system.

Fralock is partnered with the leading raw material manufacturers of TIM products (seeLINE CARD). With our state of the art facility, Fralock converts a wide variety of TIM products including: Gap Pads, Phase Change, and Putty.

Design Considerations for Thermal Interface

Interface Gap – The gap which results between the microprocessor and the hat sink due to the stack-up of flatness specification tolerance. Two nominally flat surfaces will always product an interface gap when placed together.

Contact Resistance – In thermal transfer, air equals resistance. Thus, contact resistance is a theoretical measure of the volume of air voids along the interface of any two surfaces. These microscopic voids are formed by surface roughness, surface concavity or the interface material ineffectively conforming to the component’s surface.

Thermal Conductivity – The ability of a material to conduct heat after the heat has entered that material.  Thermal conductive value can be misleading when used to evaluate thermal interface materials since tactual performance is affected by the contact resistance with both the heat sink and the microprocessor. Thermal conductivity is typically expressed in units of W/m-K.

Thermal Impedance – A defined parameter which is calculated by dividing the temperature difference across the interface by the power output of the microprocessor. Thermal impedance values are quite valuable in thermal management design since they inherently reflect the impact of contact resistance on interface performance. Low thermal resistances indicate a system which dissipates heat effectively. Thermal impedance is typically expressed in units of C-in2/W.

Dielectric Strength – A measure of the voltage required to cause a breakdown of a specific thickness of interface material.? Dielectric strength is typically expressed in units of volts/mil.

Contact Pressure – The pressure between the microprocessor and the heat sink. This pressure is typically generated and maintained by the heat sink clips which attach to a socket. Contact pressure is typically measured in pounds per square inch (psi).

Application Pressure – The pressure required to attach an interface material to a heat sink or to a microprocessor. Application pressure is typically measured in pounds per square inch (psi).

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